Team Management Systems (TMS) was established in 1985 by Dr Margerison and Dr McCann and is recognized as the foremost integrated system of work-based, research-proven assessments and feedback instruments worldwide.
The TMS approach focuses on identifying and understanding key work elements that prove to be a reliable and valid focus in explaining why some individuals, teams, and organizations perform, work effectively and achieve their objectives, while others fail.
At its core, Team Management Systems offers research proven assessments that reveal critical dynamics to enable the development of high performance in the workplace.
Dr Charles Margerison is a Partner in Team Management Systems, previously Professor of Management at the University of Queensland, Australia, and also at the Cranfield University School of Management, UK. Holding a PhD in Educational Psychology, he is the author and co-author of many leading books and professional articles. His industrial experience includes time as CEO of a publications company and as a consultant to leading corporations.
Dr Dick McCann is a Partner in Team Management Systems, with a background in science, engineering, finance and organizational behaviour. Earlier in his career he spent five years with the BP company in London. Holding a PhD in engineering, he is the author and co-author of many leading books and articles on teamwork. He is currently Managing Director of TMS Australia, and a Director of TMS Development International.
I understand that for any individual, you can provide them with the following Profiles: Team Management Profile; Linking Leader Profile; Types of Work Profile; Team Performance Profile; The Opportunities-Obstacles Profile; Window on Work Values Profile; Organisational Values Profile; Influencing Skills Profile; Strategic Team Development Profile.
Can you explain what is the model underlying these Profiles and how they are linked?
There are two models that are the basis of the Team Management Profile, the Types of Work Profile, the Team Performance Profile and the Linking Skills Profile. They are the Types of Work Wheel and the Team Management Wheel.
The Types of Work Wheel arose from empirical studies we carried out some years ago, interviewing more than 300 managers and team members to discover what were the essential success factors in a team. Our job analytic approach looked at the activities of team members that made a difference between good and poor performance in their jobs. The data fell naturally into eight work functions eventually described as:
- Advising - Gathering and reporting information
- Innovating - Creating and experimenting with ideas
- Promoting - Exploring and presenting opportunities
- Developing - Assessing and testing the applicability of new approaches
- Organizing - Establishing and implementing ways of making things work
- Producing - Concluding and delivering outputs
- Inspecting - Controlling and auditing the working of systems
- Maintaining - Upholding and safeguarding standards and processes
Margerison-McCann Types of Work Wheel
The theory of the Types of Work Wheel postulates that differing jobs have different critical functions and these require people of the requisite skills and competencies in order to perform them to a high level. For example, a job analysis of 587 Finance and Accounting positions shows the top three work functions to be Organizing, Producing and Inspecting. Compare this with 310 Design/R&D jobs where the critical work functions are Advising, Innovating and Developing. The critical work functions are those that make the difference between good and poor performance in the job.
The second model is the Team Management Wheel which relates these work functions to individuals' work preferences, giving rise to the concept of role preferences i.e. the roles in a team that people are most likely to enjoy. When people are well matched to the critical functions in terms of preference, they are likely to be happier in their job and perform better.
Margerison-McCann Team Management Wheel
Every jobholder also needs to implement the skills of Linking if they are to be successful in their job. Linking is placed in the center of the Wheels because it is a process common to all eight work functions. For example, those who have Inspecting as a critical function in their job must do it in a linking way to avoid being labelled an 'interrogator'. Those who have Organizing as a critical function must do it in a linking way to avoid being seen as too pushy or too demanding. 'Linking' comprises six people skills, five task skills and for the team leader, two leadership skills.
The two Values Profiles and the Opportunities/Obstacles Profile complete the picture by defining the Workplace Behavior Pyramid. This links all the Profiles together by giving an overview of the three levels of workplace behavior. These three levels give a team leader most of the information required to understand why people behave they way they do. This knowledge is an absolute requirement of effective leadership./P>
Workplace Behavior Pyramid
How did you come to identify the eight roles that make up the Team Management Wheel?
In speaking with people primarily engaged in the various work functions - Promoting, Organizing, Inspecting, Advising, and so on - we found that those who really enjoyed their work showed common behavioral characteristics. 'Promoting' people, for example, were commonly more outgoing whereas 'Inspecting' people were quieter and more able to focus on the detail. 'Innovating' people were obviously quite creative whereas 'Producing' people were very much practically oriented. This then led us into attempting to find a relationship between the Types of Work Wheel and 'people' characteristics.
We identified four measures that seemed to explain many of the differences in the way that people approached work. These measures are:
- How people prefer to relate with others
- How people prefer to gather and use information
- How people prefer to make decisions
- How people prefer to organize themselves and others.
These four issues are presented below as the RIDO scales (Relationships, Information, Decisions, Organization).
These scales showed a strong relationship to the Types of Work Wheel. Of course the development of the RIDO scales and the two Wheels was an iterative process that took us a few years of research to develop. But eventually the models all slotted together to give us a reliable and valid way of measuring work preferences that related to the critical jobs that need to be performed in teams.
How stringent are the boundaries of these facets? Can there be any overlap between the categories? For example, can an individual possess more than one major and two related areas of work preferences on the Margerison-McCann Team Management Wheel?
The roles on the Team Management Wheel are not 'boxes' into which people are placed. The model is a continuous distribution of probabilities that shows the roles in a team that are more likely to be preferred. On each Team Management Profile report that respondents receive as part of the TMS process, a work preference distribution is given. For example, one such distribution might be:
Here the major role is that of the Assessor Developer (36%). The next two highest percentages then become the two related roles - Thruster-Organizer (25%) and Explorer-Promoter (16%). In this example these three roles account for 80% of the work preferences, so the respondent is very likely to exhibit behavior at work consistent with these role preferences. 20% of the preference distribution is in the other roles and there might be times when the respondent will enjoy some aspects of such work, so long as it doesn't become a regular occurrence.
Sometimes a flatter distribution appears, indicating that significant work preferences may extend beyond three roles. At other times the work preferences may narrow into just one or two significant roles. We always indicate the major role plus the next two (related roles) - but respondents can examine their preference distribution around the Wheel to gain further insights into their preference for the other work functions.
Major role preference distributions of 2025 CEOs and managing directors showed that 51% of CEOs have work preferences in the Explorer part of the Wheel (Creator-Innovator, Explorer-Promoter and Assessor-Developer sectors) whereas the equivalent figure for Controller part of the Wheel (Concluder-Producer, Controller-Inspector, Upholder-Maintainer) is 20%. Do we need to encourage people to develop their strengths in those areas where there are not many individuals?
It is perhaps worthwhile comparing this data with another slice from our database sample. If we look at 13500 people working in the functional area of Production/ Construction/ Control, the percentages are 28% in the Explorer part of the Wheel and 41% in the Controller part of the Wheel - almost the direct opposite of the CEO data. What this shows is that, on average, CEOs tend to have work preferences associated with looking towards the future, focusing on innovation and developing ideas so that they can be successfully implemented. Usually though, they will have people on their team with different work preferences - those who will enjoy looking after the Producing and Inspecting activities. This highlights the importance of having a balance in a high-performing team. The most successful teams are those that match people to the job, aiming for a high level of workplace engagement.
For Production teams the role of the team leader is often different. Here the demands of the job tend to focus on efficiency, quality and deadlines - delivering products and services on a regular basis. So we tend to find more people in this functional area with preferences in the southern or Controlling part of the Wheel - most commonly those with Concluder-Producer preferences.
Do people's work preferences change throughout their career/life?
Work Preferences do vary throughout an individual's career. We have done many longitudinal studies to examine the nature of the changes. It's not a surprise that people's preferences change - after all life is a journey. We all have the opportunity to change our behavior and even our beliefs as we learn from experience - the choice is ours. Some people 'grow' as they move through life, others stay the same - even sometimes repeating unsuccessful patterns of behavior over and over again./P>
Over short periods of time (< 1-2 years) role preferences will be relatively stable. One study carried out with a group of managers showed that, over a six-month period, 96% of respondents had no more than one work preference change (on the RIDO scales). On the Team Management Wheel this resulted in either no change to the major role or a move to an adjacent sector.
Over longer periods (5+ years) many people we have assessed show no change, but others do show some movement with time. Usually this movement occurs with younger managers or those who have made a conscious decision to 'develop' themselves. Any preference journey is possible provided people have the will to change. Most commonly, preference journeys are influenced by organizational culture and the types of management development opportunities that are available.
One common career journeys is that of the 'line manager'.
Line Manager Career Journey
Many young professionals - particularly engineers and accountants - start work with preferences for introversion, practical information gathering, analytical decision making and structured organization (IPAS). This maps them firmly into the Concluder-Producer sector of the Wheel. They work in this sector very effectively for several years, concentrating on their technical work and supervising small teams.
Over a period of years their introverted approach at work will often move towards the extroversion side of the E-I continuum as they learn through experience and management development to become more outgoing. This starts them on a journey into the Thruster-Organizer sector (EPAS) where they may, for example, be effective as project managers, making things happen on time and to budget.
Such people may stay in this sector for several years but some continue their journey onwards. Again through management development, 'mentoring', coaching, experience, or even their own desire, many managers move their preference on the information-gathering measure. They are encouraged to take a more 'helicopter' view of the workplace and look towards 'what might be' rather than 'what is'. This causes them to move from the practical side of the continuum to the creative side. As a result they move further anticlockwise on the Wheel into the Assessor-Developer sector, poised between the Exploring and Organizing parts of the Wheel.
Are there any particular areas on the Wheel that are more advantageous or disadvantageous to the functioning of a team than any other?
No. In a well balanced team all of the role preferences make a significant contribution to the work of a team. Consider, for example, a typical team project:
When a new project is undertaken, a starting point is often the Advising function, where data are gathered by referring to what others have done, by reading, talking to key people, and accessing databases available through intranet and internet facilities. This information then sets the scene for the project.
Next the focus probably moves to the Innovating function where we try to fully understand the 'state-of-the-art' associated with the project and look to incorporating new ideas that will give the project a competitive advantage. Many new concepts can increase productivity by reducing costs or by increasing customer service.
Probably simultaneously with Advising and Innovating, the project team needs to focus onPromoting. Key stakeholders need to be influenced, particularly those in senior positions within the organization who have the power to make or break the project. Early influencing of these key people is a prerequisite for success.
When we have a good idea of the form the project might take and we have the support of key stakeholders, we can move to the Developing phase. Here ideas need to be turned into reality. This often means taking hard decisions to ensure that the project meets the needs of key clients and customers and fits within the commercial constraints of the organization. Impractical ideas need to be weeded out so that there is a high chance of success.
The next function to focus on is Organizing. Here we need to assign responsibilities to team members, establish clear goals and reporting mechanisms and ensure that everyone knows what they have to do, how, and by when.
The Producing function is all about delivering the product or service. Very often a systematic approach is required to ensure delivery on time and to budget. The most effective projects usually have a production plan that is constantly monitored and updated to ensure that outputs are delivered to the right quality.
Inspecting is an umbrella work function that covers many parts of project work. It means focusing strongly on budgets and financial auditing so that costs are controlled and revenue collected. But it also covers areas such as legal contracts, safety, security and quality issues. Successful projects often have a long checklist to ensure that all aspects of Inspecting are covered.
Maintaining is a very important support activity on all projects. Key work processes need to be set up and maintained so that the team is working to agreed standards. Issues such as project ground rules and ethics often form the basis of successful implementation.
And of course there is Linking, which ensures that all the multitude of activities that make a project successful are coordinated and integrated. All team members have a duty in project work to take responsibility to keep others informed about what is going on. This usually covers linking tasks, as well as linking people together to achieve those tasks.
So all areas of the Team Management Wheel are important to teamwork. Problems can occur, though, when there is an imbalance in the team in terms of role preferences. If for example, a team was composed of all Thruster-Organizers they would love the part of the project that dealt with action and results - but what about the Advising and Innovating stages? Unless they were aware of their positions on the Wheel they may gloss over these stages and quickly move things onto the areas they enjoy most. A well-balanced team will be aware of this and make sure that it doesn't happen.
The worldwide gender sample (135,915 respondents) for the Team Management Wheel shows the following percentage distribution:
Profile Male Female Reporter-Adviser 2 4 Creator-Innovator 10 9 Explorer-Promoter 11 10 Assessor-Developer 18 16 Thruster-Organizer 26 26 Concluder-Producer 23 25 Controller-Inspector 8 8 Upholder-Maintainer 2 2
There does not seem to be much variation between males and females and there appears to be more Thruster-Organizers and Concluder-Producers. What conclusions do you draw in relation to the Profiles that are in the lower percentages? How do your findings reflect on the theories that discuss that males and females are socialized differently and therefore undertake different organizational tasks in particular ways?
Roles preferences are determined by people's responses to the four RIDO scales:
- How they relate to others - extroverted vs. introverted
- How they gather information - practical vs. creative
- How they make decisions - analytical vs. beliefs
- How they organize themselves and others - structured vs. flexible
These four measures apply equally to men and women and the data show little difference between genders. The only significant difference is that women are slightly more Beliefs oriented in their decision-making, compared with men who are slightly more analytical. This has shown up mainly in the Reporter- Adviser sector.
Within a particular sector on the Team Management Wheel the tasks associated with that role may be executed differently by men and women, depending upon socialization pressures - but the 'preference' to execute particular functions will be independent of gender.
It is also interesting to look at some research we did on the preference difference between the work and non-work situation. A sample of 282 people were asked to describe their preferences for one pole on each of the four work preference constructs (Extrovert - Introvert, Practical-Creative, Analytical-Beliefs, and Structured-Flexible), both at work and outside of work.
Of particular interest were the Analytical-Beliefs and Structured-Flexible scales which showed the greatest change for those moving from one pole to the other (e.g. B to A). 32% of those who were Beliefs-Oriented in the non-work situation actually moved to having an Analytical preference at work, compared with the opposite move where less than 1% of those who were Analytical outside work changed to become Beliefs-Oriented at work.
17% of those who were Flexible in the non-work situation changed to become Structured at work compared with the opposite move where less than 3% of those who were Structured outside work became Flexible at work.
These results help explain why most of the norm data for the A-B and S-F scales show a skew towards Analytical and Structured work preferences, and hence towards Thruster-Organizer and Concluder- Producer. Some organizations place constraints on the accepted behavior at work and many people learn to adapt their work preferences to fit in with the organizational culture. The results of the work/non-work study actually show a skew in the opposite direction (towards Beliefs and Flexible) when we consider just non-work preferences.
In this study significant differences were also found between men and women on the A-B scale. 38% of women revert to Beliefs-Oriented preferences outside of work compared with 22% for men. This may reflect the need for women to 'play' different roles in order to meet the challenges placed on them in the two substantially different environments.
The worldwide gender sample quoted above is a business sample, mainly of those in a first line supervisor role or above. It is not surprising that the Thruster-Organizer and Concluder-Producer roles dominate as most business have more employees in the area of Organizing and Producing compared with those in the Innovating and Promoting areas. So given that there is a strong relationship between the critical function of a job and the role preferences of those doing it, we would expect these two role preferences to dominate when looking at organizations as a whole.
This can be confirmed when we look just at Professions breakdowns within organizations. Psychologists, for example, have only 12% and 9% in the Thruster-Organizer and Concluder-Producer roles respectively, with the highest percentage (27%) in the Creator Innovator area. Teachers, for example, have 10% in the Reporter-Adviser area, compared with a much lower percentage in the worldwide sample.
The Linking Leader Profile focuses on motivation and strategy? Why does this Profile not include other leadership traits traditionally associated with leadership such as vision development?
The Linking Leader Profile is a multi-rater Profile that measures the gap between what a leader 'should' be doing and what she is 'actually doing', in the eyes of key stakeholders such as team members, peers and senior management.
There are actually 13 key area measures that cover six People Linking Skills, five Task Linking Skills and two special Leadership Linking Skills. All 13 skills define the Linking Leader.
The area of 'Motivation' does include vision development. Effective team leaders articulate a compelling vision of the team's future. If people are to give of their best they need to have a clear picture of what lies ahead. In addition they need to be persuaded that this vision is worth following and it is here that the Linking Leader has a real chance to motivate the team. Along with the vision there needs to be a set of clear goals that act as beacons to follow. A leader who focuses unwaveringly on these goals will inspire team members to give of their best. Linking Leaders make people feel optimistic about the future and will take a stand on controversial issues affecting the team.
In the Strategy area a Linking Leader must be a strategic thinker, capable of examining assumptions to discover potential weaknesses and keeping all elements of complex issues in focus. They are able to think ahead and see problems before they arise; they know where the team should be going and how to get there. The Linking Leader Profile Questionnaire measures all these characteristics.
How is the Margerison-McCann Team Management Wheel used for leadership development?
Most of our accredited network members use the Team Management Profile for leadership and team development. The starting point is the 4000 word personal report which focuses on work preferences, leadership strengths, interpersonal skills, decision-making and team-building. It highlights the strengths of the identified major role preference and allows the respondent to reflect on their influencing skills. Communicating with people on the opposite side of the Team Management Wheel can be difficult unless the respondent understands the different 'models of reality' that people have. The Team Management Profile gives them a model and a language to use to improve communication and develop their leadership skills.
The next step is for leaders to look at the balance of role preferences in their team. Often gaps in team performance relate to the imbalance in role preferences. With the Team Management Profile the leader can diagnose problems in their team and move to developing remedies.
In leadership coaching we also recommend using the Opportunities-Obstacles Profile which gives personal feedback on MTG Energy, Multi-pathway Generation, Optimism, Fault-Finding and Time Focus - all key aspects that feature in the day-to-day activities of most leaders.
There are many other applications of TMS technology that form part of leadership development programs. One such application centers around the ideas of happiness, contentment and productivity. Happy employees increase staff retention rates, thereby reducing the need for recruitment. As anyone running a business knows, the cost of replacing an excellent employee far outweighs the cost of increasing their workplace satisfaction.
Happiness at work is a direct function of three major factors: engagement of work preferences, an adaptive approach to risk, and alignment of organizational and personal work values.
Linking Skills assessment often features in our leadership development program. Here leaders rate themselves against the 13 key linking skills and compare their self assessment with those from colleagues, team members and senior managers. This multi-rater feedback gives valuable information to develop action plans for leadership development.
Do you accept that individuals may possess other qualities that remain unidentified by the Team Management Wheel?
Work preferences are dimensions of individual differences in tendencies to show consistent patterns of relationships, thoughts, feelings and actions in the workplace. Preferences determine the conditions we set up to allow our mental and psychic processes to flow freely. They guide our behavior, but if we have to work outside them at various times then we can usually cope.
However there are two other important 'people' characteristics that impact greatly on workplace behavior. We have grouped the three main characteristics into the Workplace Behavior Pyramid mentioned earlier./P>
The middle layer of the Pyramid addresses the way people approach risk. The behaviors associated with this operate at the middle level of the human psyche. All through our life we are faced with opportunities and obstacles; they crop up in every project we undertake no matter how much forward planning is undertaken. What determines peoples' risk profiles is the different emphasis they place on either 'seeing the opportunities' or 'seeing the obstacles'. Some people treat obstacles as an opportunity to take a new direction whereas others use them as an excuse to give up. Some people treat obstacles as a stumbling block but for others they are stepping-stones to the future. These characteristics are measured by our Risk-Orientation model and the data fed back in the Opportunities-Obstacles Profile.
At the base of the pyramid are 'values'. These are fundamental concepts or beliefs which people use to guide their behavior in the workplace. Values will drive our decision-making and cause us to summon up energy to preserve what we believe in. They go beyond specific situations and determine how we view people, behavior and events. Often major sources of conflict and disillusionment are due to mismatched values. Whereas we are often willing to work on tasks that we dislike, we are much less likely to compromise when our values are under threat. /P>
Whereas preferences tend to be enduring dispositions that vary in frequency and intensity, values are enduring goals or motivational concerns that vary in importance as guiding principles. Values are inherently desirable to someone holding them whereas preferences are more neutral. We measure personal values by the Window on Work Values Profile and relate them to organizational values as measured by the Organizational Values Profile.
Together preferences, approach to risk and values give leaders valuable tools to understand why people do the things that they do. Once we understand people we can move to harness their potential for the benefit of the organization and their own career.
In terms of the reliability and validity of the Team Management Systems tools, can you site the most current research that upholds your work for all of the Team Management Systems Profiles.All of our Profiles are well researched. Our in-house research institute has been going now for 17 years. Edition 3 of our Research Manual is available to those interested . Independently the British Psychological Society has evaluated our five main Profiles and reports on these are available from their web site (www.psychtesting.org.uk/test-registration-and-test-reviews).
In your consultancy, do you find that organizations request that you conduct all of the above Profiles for their staff or do they choose particular ones? Which Profile is most sought after? Have you come to instinctively know which Role Preference individuals have upon your spending time with them?
The nine TMS Profiles are designed to cover just about any area of personal and team development. If an intervention around values is required then obviously the personal Window on Work Values Profile or the multi-rater Organizational Values Profile tends to be used. If a client is after a team assessment as the basis for improving performance then either the Team Development Profile or the Strategic Team Development Profile will be used.
The personal Team Management Profile is the most popular Profile. It is also the first one we developed. It gives respondents personal feedback on the way they prefer to work, covering areas of interpersonal skills, decision-making, leadership and team-building. People like this Profile because it explains some of the difficulties they have in working with others; the Profile gives them tips and hints about how to improve relationships at work. It also reinforces the need for balanced teams where the critical demands of each person's job should overlap with their work preferences.
Some of the components of work preferences are easier to recognize than others. For example, people who are extroverted and like to work with ideas by talking things through will show some preference towards the Explorer-Promoter role. Those who are more introverted and practical may well prefer the Concluder-Producer or Controller-Inspector roles. However the actual distribution of someone's work preferences around the Team Management Wheel will depend on the interplay between the four key scales, and the only way to determine this is by administering the Team Management Profile Questionnaire.
What are your thoughts on women encountering glass ceilings in organizational contexts where the male leader is the norm and attitudes supporting masculine work structures prevail?
This has been a major problem for women for some time now, but thankfully attitudes are changing. We often use the Window on Work Values model to stimulate discussion and hopefully help initiate organizational changes.
McCann Window on Work Values
Many organizations operate under the value types of Authority, Compliance and Conformity. Here there is a strong culture of tradition, respect for hierarchy, stability, power, control, and order. They have been successful in the past and the way to the future (in their eyes) is 'steady as she goes'. In organizations like these glass ceilings are all too common.
The other side of the Window on Work Values identifies a different set of value types that many organizations are now fostering. Here the emphasis is on Empowerment and Equality. Have a look at the values that comprise these two value types.
Equal of Opportunity
Organizations that focus on these values usually have no glass ceilings. Women who hold personal values that align with these two value types do well in such organizations, where there are very few obstacles to attaining the highest levels of leadership.
When you both developed Team Management Systems, how did you protect this intellectual property and what were some of the steps that you both took to make your concept into a marketable product?
The first thing we did was to register the Margerison-McCann logo and the Team Management Wheel as trademarks. This then enabled us to protect the mark of the Team Management Wheel, which gave us a brand that is now recognized internationally.
Obviously all of our material is copyrighted and much of it is generally available in publications. However the core 'product' that makes our work 'come alive' are the personal Profiles that participants receive when they attend one of the many workshops run by our international network of more that 10,000 members. The software that generates these Profiles is encrypted to a high standard and use of it is restricted to those who become TMS accredited network members.
When we started off in 1985, all workshops were run by one of the authors - sometimes two in tandem. This enabled us to control quality and develop a reputation. The product really spoke for itself and spread mainly by word-of-mouth. Today, we are truly global with the Team Management Profile in eleven European languages, two South American languages and we have just finished a Japanese translation which is about to be launched.
We also put a lot of effort into making our product visual and one that used well known business terms, rather than psychological ones - albeit that all our work has rigorous psychometric underpinnings.
A lot of time was spent agonizing over the colors to use for our two Wheels. We wanted them to represent the characteristics of the various sectors. For example, the Reporter-Adviser sector was colored 'fresh green' to represent a focus on new idea and information. Green is the color of new growth in plants: it indicates the beginning of life, the freshness of new information.>
The Explorer-Promoter sector was given a bright yellow color. The yellow sun gives life to the earth and nourishes life in general. How much better we feel on a bright sunny day - it encourages us to go exploring.
The Thruster-Organizer sector was assigned 'warm red'. Red is the color of action, warmth, and emotions. The Organizing sector is where the action takes place and heat is generated from movement, hence the warm-red color was chosen. /P>
The Controller-Inspector sector is 'deep blue'. After the activity comes the cooling off period. Blue is the color of cool, clear thinking which represents the control and detail of the Wheels, the period for reflection and checking that all the outcomes have been met. Deep blue is also the color of the depths of the ocean./P>
When sunlight is passed through a prism, the white light disperses into the colors of the spectrum: from red through orange, yellow, green and blue to violet. This physics theory was adapted to the Team Management Wheel, where the colors of the Wheel meet in the white linking center. The team roles complement one another and together make a 'whole' team. Working and linking well together unites the colors into white light.For more information on the TMS see: www.TeamManagementSystems.com