On 24 January 2002, USA House of Representatives John Dingell and Carolyn Maloney released the Dingell-Maloney report: A New Look Through the Glass Ceiling and a study they commissioned from the General Accounting Office assessing the status of women in ten selected industries: Communications, Public Administration, Business and Repair Services, Entertainment and Recreation Services, Other Professional Services, Educational Services, Retail Trade, Finance, Insurance and Real Estate, Hospitals and Medical Services, and Professional Medical Services.
The release of the GAO data was the first in a series of federally funded studies examining the status of women and the glass ceiling.
"The world at the top of the corporate hierarchy does not look anything like America. Women are under-represented in senior management positions in virtually every professional field. Although women have made steady improvements in their average pay, earning 76 cents for every dollar that a man takes home, the glass ceiling is a powerful obstacle blocking women’s progress to the top.
Although women had been making steady economic improvements, a new GAO analysis finds the wage gap widened and the glass ceiling hardened, rather than shattered, after 1995."
A New Look Through the Glass Ceiling Report
The General Accounting Office (GAO) analyzed Current Population Survey (CPS) data for 1995-2000 to assess the situation of women managers in 10 industries that employ over 70 percent of women workers. Despite a sense of continued progress toward gender equality in the workplace, in the 10 industries employing 71 percent of United States (US) women workers and 73 percent of US women managers, data showed women managers continued to lag behind their male counterparts in both advancement and pay. In 7 industries, the wage gap actually widened. Women continued to be underrepresented in management and held a share of management jobs proportionate to their share of the industry workforce in only 5 industries. Women's record presence in the work force was not matched by their presence in the more influential and economically advantageous positions. Women's earnings now peaked at ages 45-54, just as men's did. Women often selected industries and occupations that enabled them to combine work and family responsibilities. Jobs where women predominated generally paid less than jobs where men predominated. Occupational segregation produced different levels of management and different management tracks, including tracks that led nowhere. In 2000, the pay gap among all working women and men was widest among parents.